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DESCRIPTION: This article reviews research on psychosocial and health outcomes associated with peer victimization related to adolescent sexual orientation and gender identity or expression. Using four electronic databases and supplementary methodswe identified 39 relevant studies.

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WHAT IS LGBT?

A gay man is one who is romantically, sexually and/or emotionally attracted to men. Gender expression refers to outwardly expressing one's gender identity. Connecting with other transgender people through peer support groups and transgender Sexual Orientation refers to an enduring pattern of emotional, romantic. The Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity and Expression (SOGIE) working group is based at Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard T.H. Chan School of. IACHR, Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Gender Expression: Key Terms .. of Human Rights has addressed several key issues related to gender identity .. the Universal Periodic Review process, States engage in a peer review of all .

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This article reviews research on psychosocial and health outcomes associated with peer victimization related to adolescent sexual orientation and gender identity or expression. Using four electronic databases and supplementary methodswe identified 39 relevant studies. These studies were published between and and conducted in 12 different countries. Despite the methodological diversity across studies, there is fairly strong evidence that peer victimization related to sexual orientation and gender identity or expression is associated with a diminished sense of school belonging and higher levels of depressive symptoms; findings regarding the relationship between peer victimization and suicidality have been more mixed.

Peer victimization related to sexual orientation and gender identity or expression is also associated with disruptions in educational trajectories, traumatic stress, and alcohol and substance use. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed. As bullying has been implicated in several reports about adolescent suicides in the U.

It thus seems an appropriate moment Sexual orientation and gender identity/expression related peer review and integrate the accumulated research Sexual orientation and gender identity/expression related peer on peer victimization affecting sexual and gender minority youth. Peer victimization in general encompasses a variety of negative, aggressive behaviors among children and adolescents; it can take both direct e. Bullying is a specific form of peer victimization, occurring repeatedly over time and involving an imbalance of power between bully and victim Olweus, Peer victimization affecting sexual and gender minority youth more specifically has received a good deal of research attention; as noted in a recent report by the U.

Institute of Medicine, it is the most common topic in the literature on these populations IOM, We aim to answer the following question: Our goals are to Sexual orientation and gender identity/expression related peer, summarize, and evaluate the literature in this area and in so doing, develop informed recommendations for future research and intervention development. We have structured this paper as a narrative review because this approach is best suited to addressing the diversity of psychosocial and health outcomes that have been studied in relation to peer victimization, which has itself been operationalized in a variety of ways.

Indeed, the results of the literature review are presented with attention to the methodological diversity of Sexual orientation and gender identity/expression related peer studies included; implications of this methodological diversity are then discussed.

We have chosen not to focus on the prevalence of peer victimization among sexual minority youth or disparities in their exposure to victimization. Prevalence of peer victimization has been well documented in samples of sexual minority youth, and also in representative samples of adolescents, indicating disproportionate exposures among sexual minorities e.

Prevalence has also been the subject of recent meta-analyses. Results of 26 school-based studies indicated that sexual minority adolescents were, on average, 1. Despite these findings and despite Sexual orientation and gender identity/expression related peer focus of the present review, peer victimization should not be thought of as a normative part of adolescence for sexual and gender minority youth.

In this manuscript, we will use peer victimization as an umbrella term to encompass the variety of negative behaviors directed toward participants in the reviewed studies by other adolescents. These behaviors primarily included physical, verbal, and sexual victimization and sexual harassment, but also indirect and relational victimization.

The term gender minority is also used broadly in reference to transgender individuals and to gender non-conforming individuals who do not self-identify as transgender but whose gender identity or expression does not conform to cultural norms for their birth sex. To avoid obscuring important differences between sub-populations e. This will also be our practice when referring to those studies that included transgender or gender non-conforming participants.

Abbreviations are used as follows: Additional details regarding the search strategy, including a complete list of search terms, are included in the Appendix. The search was limited to the English-language literature and captured articles published through the first half of We supplemented the list of articles yielded by the database searches with articles from our own files and those that were referenced by other studies.

These efforts produced a list of unique citations. To be included, studies must have 1 been published after ; 2 been published in a peer-reviewed journal; 3 been empirically-based; 4 reported original research findings; 5 been conducted among adolescents or focused on adolescent experiences studies in which adults retrospectively reported on adolescent experiences were included ; 6 been concerned with victimization perpetrated by adolescent peers or in school settings; and 7 explored a psychosocial or health outcome in relation to peer victimization.

We focused on studies published after because Savin-Williams summarized earlier work in this area. Fifty articles needed review of the full text before a decision about inclusion or exclusion could be made; these decisions were made by the first author in consultation with a co-author.

All studies were independently reviewed by two authors and abstracted using a standardized form. The first author reconciled the work of the two reviewers and organized the abstractions into one database that allowed aspects of all included studies to be compared and summarized. Outcomes of applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria to the retrieved articles are presented in Figure 1. In the end, Sexual orientation and gender identity/expression related peer studies were included in the review.

These studies were diverse in their research foci and approaches, and key aspects of each study are summarized in Table 1. The majority of reviewed studies were conducted in the U. A final two studies recruited participants from multiple countries: Canada, New Zealand, and the U.

As shown in Table 2several articles were based on common data sources. Studies are listed alphabetically by first author last name.

With only one exception, Sexual orientation and gender identity/expression related peer studies were based on cross-sectional data collected from participants at one point in time. In the one study with a longitudinal design, Poteat and Espelage collected data from middle school students twice over a one-year period. Thus, while we can hope to see more findings from longitudinal studies published in the future, for now the cross-sectional nature of the study designs is an overarching limitation, even for those studies that utilized more complex causal modeling data analytic techniques.

An additional limitation common to most of the reviewed studies is the use of non-probability sampling techniques. For studies that included sexual and gender minority participants only, participants were typically recruited via community venues e. For studies that included both LGBT and other adolescents, school-based sampling techniques were most common, although they varied in their application. Data used in several of these studies were from large-scale surveys undertaken to assess the health of adolescents in a specified geographic area i.

Notably, a few studies did use some probability sampling techniques. Seven studies included both adolescents and young adults up to age 25 ; three focused on young Sexual orientation and gender identity/expression related peer only ages 18—25 ; four focused on adults; and two studies, based on the same dataset, surveyed participants ranging in age from 16 to 54 Rivers, Data on gender minority youth were relatively scarce within the 39 studies.

Of the twelve studies that included transgender participants, only four addressed their experiences independently of sexual minority participants, and another three studies focused on transgender or gender-variant youth specifically.

Another important way in which the reviewed studies differed from one another was in their approaches to assessing the sexual orientation of participants.

The reviewed studies were diverse in their approaches to measuring peer victimization. We have provided an overview of this diversity in Table 1. All measures of peer victimization used in these studies were based on participant self-report. For purposes of comparison, we have used the available descriptions of study measures to categorize the types of victimization studied. We should stress that, although we have applied a common typology in Sexual orientation and gender identity/expression related peer the types of victimization assessed in each study, we do not mean to imply that each individual type of victimization was assessed in the same way across studies.

The typology used is consistent with that used by Hawker and Boulton in their meta-analysis of the relationship between peer victimization and psychosocial adjustment, but includes the additional categories sexual victimization and sexual harassment.

Verbal victimizationwhich was most commonly studied, included being called names, teased, insulted, or threatened to be hurt or beat up. Physical victimization included the following types of experiences: Sexual victimization included rape and sexual abuse or assault. A small number of studies assessed sexual harassmentwhich encompassed being the target of sexual jokes, comments, or gestures, being touched or grabbed in a sexual way, being flashed or mooned, and being pressured for a date. We also note studies that assessed indirect forms of peer victimization alongside more direct behaviors.

Relational victimization involved being purposefully excluded by peers from activities. Indirect victimization refers to behaviors such as having rumors or lies spread about oneself. Several studies did not assess specific forms of victimization or assessed both specific and general types of peer victimization.

We should note that some studies also assessed victimization that occurred in settings outside the school, but that we have limited our analysis only to victimization that occurred at school or was perpetrated by adolescent peers. In Table 1we have noted whether the study authors assessed any attributions for victimization related to sexual orientation or gender identity or expression.

This would be an example of peer victimization related to sexual orientation. In Table 1we refer to such studies as assessing peer victimization that involved sexually prejudiced language. Some studies that did assess attributions for victimization only did so in relation to specific victimization subtypes and not all the subtypes assessed in those studies.

A diverse range of psychosocial and health outcomes were assessed in relation to peer victimization, as shown in the right-most column in Table 1. Most studies utilized structured survey research methods, with relatively few using qualitative research methods such as focus groups and interviews. Findings of specific studies are discussed below. All of the qualitative studies addressed the experiences of sexual and gender minority youth. Even though the qualitative studies included in our review were based on small samples and it is unclear to what extent those sampled are representative of sexual and gender minority youth in general, they do offer some valuable information about the breadth of outcomes potentially associated with peer victimization.

These studies also allowed the participants to communicate about their victimization experiences in their own voices. Despite the diverse settings and populations, there were common themes related to school difficulties that emerged from the qualitative studies. In a survey of U. The researchers organized reported behavior changes into four categories: The qualitative studies also provided some of the best available data on the experiences of transgender and gender non-conforming youth.

In the quantitative studies, these youth were typically not studied separately from their LGB peers, as their numbers were usually very small. Participants in this study also reported coping Sexual orientation and gender identity/expression related peer peer victimization through the use of avoidance strategies such as cutting classself-defense strategies weight-training, vigilanceand drug and alcohol use, and adopting gender conforming behaviors in an effort to prevent future attacks.

Similar responses to peer victimization have been reported by transgender participants in subsequent qualitative studies with larger samples. Although some transgender participants said they received support from LGB people at their schools, rejection by classmates and teachers and victimization at school was associated with feelings of shame, academic difficulties, and dropping out.

Participants described responses to victimization that included aggressive responses i. Some were studies of bias-based victimization in which the actual sexual orientation of participants was not assessed. For example, in a U. Those who were targeted due to their sexual orientation were more than nine times more likely to be polyvictims reporting moderate to high levels of all types of peer victimization than to belong to another victimization cluster e.

Poteat and Espelage studied outcomes associated with homophobic name-calling in a sample of middle school students, assessing their sense of school belonging and other outcomes at two points over a one-year period homophobic name-calling was only assessed at the second time point. After controlling for Time 1 levels of the outcome variables, the authors found that homophobic victimization was significantly associated with a lower sense of school belonging in males, but not females.

School-related outcomes have also been assessed in samples of LGBT youth. Personal experiences with gender non-conformity-based victimization were associated with perceptions of school as less safe for gender non-conforming females only Toomey et al. More complex studies have compared school-related outcomes associated with peer victimization in LGBT and heterosexual students. Findings from the U.

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Help me make sense of this? The Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity and Expression (SOGIE) working group is based at Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard T.H. Chan School of. This article reviews research on psychosocial and health outcomes associated with peer victimization related to adolescent sexual orientation..

Documented Roots of Psychopathology. Numerous controversies and debates have taken take down a peg or two happen throughout the history of psychopathology and its main classification systems with regards to sexual lie and gender identity. These are still reflected on present reformulations of gender dysphoria in both the Diagnostic and Statistical Instructions and the International Classification of Diseases, and in more or less subtle micro-aggressions experienced through lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans patients in mental health fret.

The present paper critically reviews this history and current controversies. It reveals that this entirely complex field contributes i to the reflection on the very much concept of mental illness; ii to the focus on selfish distress and person-centered experience of psychopathology; and iii to the recognition of stigma and one-sidedness as significant intervening variables.

Irrevocably, it argues that sexual training and gender identity have superseded viewed, in the history of the field of psychopathology, amidst two poles: Numerous controversies and debates have taken place everywhere the history of psychopathology and mental health care with regards to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender LGBT people.

The adjacent paper aims to review akin concepts in this literature, its historical and current controversies, and their relation to the power supply psychopathology classification systems. Concepts and definitions that refer to sexy orientation and gender identity are an evolving field. Many of the terms used in the past to describe LGBT general public, namely in the mental haleness field, are now considered to be outdated and even noxious.

This article reviews research on psychosocial and health outcomes associated with peer victimization related to adolescent sexual orientation and gender identity or expression. Using four electronic databases and supplementary methods, we identified 39 relevant studies. These studies were published between and and conducted in 12 different countries. The studies were diverse in terms of their approaches to sampling participants, assessing participants' sexual orientation, operationalizing peer victimization, and with regard to the psychosocial and health outcomes studied in relation to peer victimization.

Despite the methodological diversity across studies, there is fairly strong evidence that peer victimization related to sexual orientation and gender identity or expression is associated with a diminished sense of school belonging and higher levels of depressive symptoms; findings regarding the relationship between peer victimization and suicidality have been more mixed.

Peer victimization related to sexual orientation and gender identity or expression is also associated with disruptions in educational trajectories, traumatic stress, and alcohol and substance use. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed.

Many lesbians prefer to be called lesbian rather than gay. The word gay can be used to refer generally to lesbian, gay and bisexual people but many women prefer to be called lesbian. Not everyone whose appearance or behaviour is gender-atypical will identify as a transgender person.

Many transgender people live part-time or full-time in another gender. Transgender people can identify as transsexual, transvestite or another gender identity. Transsexual people live or wish to live full time as members of the gender other than that assigned at birth. Transsexual people can seek medical interventions, such as hormones and surgery, to make their bodies fit as much as possible with their preferred gender. The process of transitioning from one gender to another is called gender reassignment.

Biological females who wish to live and be recognised as men are called female-to-male FTM transsexuals or trans men. Biological males who wish to live and be recognised as women are called male-to-female MTF transsexuals or trans women. Transvestite or cross-dressing individuals are thought to comprise the largest transgender sub-group. Cross-dressers sometimes wear clothes considered appropriate to a different gender.

They vary in how completely they dress from one article of clothing to fully cross-dressing as well as in their motives for doing so. Mobile dating

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