DESCRIPTION: The hetero sexual double standard SDSprescribing sexual modesty for girls and sexual prowess for boys, negatively affects sexual and mental health. Nevertheless, endorsement and enactment of the SDS is still common.Geayled Rojas: Hehe. That was good!
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We developed the Sexual Double Standard Scale (SDSS; Muehlenhard & Quackenbush, ) to measure the extent to which respondents adhere to the. May 30, The (hetero)sexual double standard (SDS), prescribing sexual modesty for girls and sexual prowess for boys, negatively affects sexual and. Everyone knows there is a double sexual standard: Women are judged more both men and women, with average scores surpassing on a scale of 1 to 6.
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The hetero Sexual double standard scale double standard SDSprescribing sexual modesty for girls and sexual prowess for boys, negatively affects sexual and mental health. Nevertheless, endorsement and enactment of the SDS is still common. In this study, we respond to recent calls for modernization in the field of sexual double standard research. A item set formed a one-dimensional and internally consistent scale and was subsequently administered in a second Dutch sample.
After dropping one item, the item SASSY proved to be one-dimensional and internally consistent, exhibiting good test—retest reliability, construct validity, and convergent validity.
Finally, the instrument showed configural and metric measurement invariance across gender, age, education level, and sexual experience level, and configural, metric, and Sexual double standard scale measurement invariance across time. These studies confirmed the item SASSY to be a reliable and valid new tool for the assessment of contemporary sexual double standard endorsement among adolescents and emerging adults.
These reviews conclude that heterosexual romantic relationships seem to have become somewhat more egalitarian, but that the sexual double standard still exists, albeit in a different form.
Whereas originally the central notion of the sexual double standard pertained to premarital courting and sexual behavior Reiss,later definitions focused less on marital status, Sexual double standard scale included expectations in terms of sexual roles in line with the sexual double standard e.
Reviews have partially ascribed this to methodological issues Sanchez et al. It seems that the concept of the sexual double standard has evolved along with changes in the display of gendered behavior in dating and sexuality, but research methods have not been able to keep pace. This calls for the development of modernized methods and measures. The new measure was designed based on a number of desired features.
Firstly, we set out to develop an instrument that was suitable for capturing sexual double standard endorsement from the moment people begin to experience romantic and partnered sexual situations.
We also know that there is already evidence of sexual double standards in first-time sexual interactions Sanchez et al. Therefore, the
Sexual double standard scale of the new instrument specifically for assessment among both adolescents and emerging adults was a key factor in its design. Secondly, the instrument encompassed a greater variety of aspects of sexual double standards in comparison with older sexual double standard measures.
However, in a contemporary context, the sexual double standard encompasses several other aspects that have been insufficiently highlighted Sexual double standard scale were absent in previous measures. We therefore chose to reflect this multifaceted nature of the contemporary sexual double standard in the item pool of the new instrument Study 1.
wish to be mindful of deleting any of the themes established above entirely, through the deletion of items based on statistical arguments, although this cannot completely prevented.
We believe that the leading argument in this case should be that the multifaceted nature of the scale should not be compromised. Thirdly, since the sexual double standard is a highly heteronormative phenomenon, the instrument was designed specifically for assessment in heterosexual samples.
It may be possible in the future Sexual double standard scale adapt the instrument for use in non-heterosexual samples. Fourthly, to enhance comparability of the results for Sexual double standard scale men and women, as well as to enable the instrument to be used in multiple study types, we designed the instrument so that it would be suitable for assessing both females and males. Fifthly and lastly, the original item pool was constructed in a manner matching our Sexual double standard scale that this instrument would measure a single construct, namely the sexual double standard.
study should show, however, whether this is indeed the case. This article covers both instrument development Study 1 and tests of psychometric properties Study 1 and 2.
The following research questions are addressed in the two studies:. The sample consisted of adolescents and emerging adults Based on a sexual orientation question with a five-point response scale, participants were excluded if they indicated that they were attracted exclusively or mainly to members of their own sex, were attracted to both sexes equally, or were undecided as to sexual orientation.
Using this criterion, 47 participants were excluded from the analyses. The final sample consisted of heterosexual adolescents Ethical approval for Sexual double standard scale study was granted by the Child and Adolescent Studies department board at Utrecht University. An online panel enrolled by a commercial party was contracted to recruit community participants for our study. Participants were able to win prizes by participating, but received no financial reward.
The aim was to obtain a sample that included often underrepresented groups e. The use of a panel made acquiring this sample more feasible. Moreover, using an Internet panel was of added value because our study involved rather personal questions and the Internet offers relative anonymity.
This allowed participants to complete the questionnaire in the comfort and privacy of their own homes. Participants ticked a box stating that they understood that the questions would be of a sexual nature and that they wanted to continue to the questionnaire. They were further informed that they could cease their participation at any time. No parental consent was needed, because the minimum age for completing the questionnaire was The proposed scale items were designed with older sexual double standard measures in mind e.
We made sure to design items that would be suitable for assessment among heterosexual male and female adolescents and emerging adults i. The study was conducted in the Dutch language. The original Dutch item wording Sexual double standard scale be obtained from the corresponding author upon request. Gender and age Participants indicated their biological sex Sexual double standard scale or female and age.
Education Participants answered a question on their current occupation: They also indicated the highest academic qualification they had attained. If participants indicated that they were currently not studying, the highest-level qualification they had obtained was taken as their education level. Education level was categorized as lower primary school and junior vocational trainingintermediate intermediate education and vocational training Sexual double standard scale, and higher education pre-university education and university.
We assessed the factor structure and internal consistency of the item pool to determine which subset of items formed the best one-factor and internally consistent, reliable
Sexual double standard scale for the assessment of sexual double standard endorsement.
We employed an exploratory factor analysis to
Sexual double standard scale purpose. There were no missing values; therefore, no missing data handling procedure was needed.
First, the factor structure and reliability of the item instrument we had constructed
Sexual double standard scale assessed. The scale was subjected to an exploratory factor analysis using principal axis factoring with oblique rotation. The Kaiser—Meyer—Oklin value was. Furthermore, upon inspection of the scree plot, a break could be seen after the first component extracted.
As Sexual double standard scale aim was to construct a one-dimensional single factor measure, we excluded the 11 items that did not load above. However, analyses indicated that removing an additional four items would greatly increase internal consistency. Scale for the Assessment of Sexual Standards among Youth items and factor loadings across Studies 1 and 2. Item numbers match Appendix.
A subsequent study was conducted in two waves to examine whether the factor structure would replicate in a different sample using a slightly broader age group, and to examine the test—retest reliability, construct and convergent validity,
Sexual double standard scale measurement invariance of instrument scores. Test—retest reliability was assessed by comparing scores across the two waves, which were eight weeks apart. We expected there to be a strong positive relationship between the scale scores, because both scales have been designed to measure sexual double standard endorsement.
However, we did not expect the relationship to near perfection, because the new instrument was additionally designed for a specific context, a specific target group, and to be more multifaceted compared to previous instruments. Lastly, convergent validity was established by assessing the relationship of participant scores on the new instrument to scores on gendered attitudes in another Sexual double standard scale, namely the family context.
We expected to observe a positive weak to moderate relationship between the scale scores, because both scales have been designed to measure gendered attitudes. The original sample obtained at Wave 1 consisted of adolescents and adults. The final sample used in the analyses
Sexual double standard scale of heterosexual adolescents and emerging adults at Wave 1 this amounts to In comparison with Wave 1, a further participants were lost as they did not complete the Wave 2 questionnaire.
This led to a final sample used in the analyses for Wave 2 of heterosexual adolescents and emerging adults this amounts to Some variables contained missing cases. Valid score percentages are presented. The LISS
Sexual double standard scale is a representative sample of Dutch individuals who participate in monthly Internet surveys from the comfort of their own homes in exchange for a small reward.
The panel is based on a true probability sample of approximately households drawn from
Sexual double standard scale population register. A random selection of LISS panel members from those households was invited to participate in the study. The number of eligible candidates in each household varied, according to how many household Sexual double standard scale subscribe to the panel and whether they fit our age inclusion criterion.
The specific sample included thus consisted of a unique draw from the participants in the LISS panel. More information about the panel can be found on their Web site www.
The use of a panel made acquiring this sample more feasible as there was a known response rate within the panel and adequate oversampling could be provided. Data collection took place between May and July of To enable test—retest reliability to be examined, the same participants completed the questionnaire in two waves, the second wave taking place eight weeks after the first.
The revised instrument described in Study 1, now consisting of 20 items, was administered to participants in both Wave 1 and Wave 2. Gender, age, education level, and sexual experience were assessed in an identical manner to Study 1. An example item is: Scores on the constructs used to assess convergent validity were taken from the longitudinal database of the LISS panel. Complete data were available for of the participants who had also completed the new instrument and SDSS questionnaires.
Higher scores on this measure indicated more conservative family gender norms. Higher scores on this measure indicated more conservative gender norms for child-rearing.
First, the factor structure and internal consistency of the new instrument were reassessed. We employed a confirmatory factor analysis to this purpose. Subsequently, analyses were performed to ascertain test—retest reliability, construct validity, and convergent validity.
Lastly, measurement in variance was examined across time, gender, age, education, sexual experience level, and ethnicity using confirmatory factor analysis. There were no missing values: The factor structure of the new instrument was reassessed using confirmatory factor analysis with principal axis factoring. The analysis showed that all items, except one, loaded above.
Item 2 Girls like boys who take the lead in sexhowever, loaded somewhat lower in both Wave 1 and Wave 2. Based on these factor loadings, we decided to drop Item 2.
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- May 30, The (hetero)sexual double standard (SDS), prescribing sexual modesty for girls and sexual prowess for boys, negatively affects sexual and.
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- If they had been in either or both of these situations, they were asked to complete a scale measuring acceptance of the sexual double standard, first the way they. Background/Objective. Sexual double standard (SDS) has long been associated to several dimensions of sexual health. Therefore the assessment of SDS is.
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