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Klein Sexual Orientation Grid, adapted*. Please rate yourself on the following 7 variables of sexual orientation. For each variable, please choose the number. The Klein Sexual Orientation Grid (KSOG) collects data across a . personal contacts within the department and societies, and word of mouth. Keywords: sexual orientation, bisexuality, cluster analysis, Internet, Klein Sexual . by word of mouth, and by referral from the HIV care facilities associated with.
We used a cluster analysis to empirically address whether sexual orientation is a continuum or can usefully be divided into categories such as heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual using scores on the Klein Sexual Orientation Grid KSOG in three samples: We calculated means and standard deviations of these 14 clusters on the 21 variables composing the KSOG.
The result is a set of objectively identified subgroups of bisexual men and women along with characterizations of the extent to which their KSOG scores describe and differentiate them. The Bisexual group identified by the cluster analysis of
Klein sexual orientation grid pdf to word HIV sample was distinctly different from any of the bisexual groups identified by the clustering process in the Main Sample.
This underscores the importance of recruiting non-clinical samples if one wants insight into the nature of bisexuality in the population at large. Although the importance of non-clinical sampling in studies of sexual orientation has been widely and justly asserted, it has rarely been demonstrated by direct comparisons of the type conducted in the present study. Seemingly simple—is someone sexually attracted to or aroused by members of her or his own sex, or by the other sex?
How are homosexuality, heterosexuality, and bisexuality properly defined? Taking into account fantasies? This complexity is rarely embedded in the design of scientific experiments. But sometimes such a strategy is undertaken without serious comprehension of the consequences. Understanding bisexuality is the Klein sexual orientation grid pdf to word to understanding sexual orientation.
In a bipolar measure the two poles can only be averaged, not combined e. With other measures, bisexuality is a category applied to individuals who have high levels of sexual interest in both men and women. In this latter view, bisexuality is the combination of homosexuality and heterosexuality, not a compromise between the two. The present paper uses the exploratory statistical technique of cluster analysis to empirically assign individual participants to discrete sexual orientation categories.
It is one in series of reports that use this clustering solution e. Klein sexual orientation grid pdf to word two Main Study samples male and female were both drawn from two sources see Methods: These participants certainly do not constitute a random sample of any population.
We chose this method of recruitment because we wanted male and female samples spanning the sexual orientation spectrum that would be roughly uniformly distributed across that spectrum—and for that purpose such convenience sampling is adequate sampling issues will be addressed in the Discussion. Moreover, this method is relatively inexpensive. For some analyses, we compare our findings to those obtained in an even larger sample for which sexual orientation information is available: This HIV Study sample consists of men only, and contains only a modest proportion of heterosexuals.
Although a homosexual sexual orientation was not a prerequisite for participation in this study—and bisexuals were welcome—it was recruited in a context in which it would be reasonably accurate to call it a predominantly gay sample. In this paper, we describe the sampling and cluster analyses in detail. Finally, we discuss the meaning of these results and draw conclusions about the nature of sexual orientation variability in our samples.
We believe that this report is one of the first to use cluster analysis to discern discrete sexual orientation categories empirically. The first participants were recruited at a meeting of a social discussion group aimed at bisexuals in a large city in the US southwest.
The first two authors attended the meeting, explained the purposes of the study, and distributed questionnaires. Responses were entirely voluntary and confidential. Most participants completed the questionnaire before leaving; a few returned them by mail. The second batch was recruited in New York by the second author, who attended a large political event in which many bisexuals participated.
One day of this event was devoted to a series of workshops and speeches on bisexual issues. Questionnaires were made available
Klein sexual orientation grid pdf to word the site of these events, and this author encouraged passersby to complete the questionnaire.
Most who accepted the questionnaire completed it, and dropped it into a specified box; a few questionnaires were returned later by mail. Again, there was no formal return Klein sexual orientation grid pdf to word calculated, because it would be difficult to decide what is the proper base rate upon which to base this percentage. We decided we wanted a larger sample of bisexuals, and hit upon the idea of recruiting more participants through the Internet an idea which a few Klein sexual orientation grid pdf to word academics seemed to hit upon independently at approximately the same time.
Of course, the Internet contains several electronic meeting places through which bisexuals can contact each other and discuss issues pertaining to bisexuality. The Internet, we thought, might also permit us to contact heterosexuals and homosexuals roughly comparable to the bisexual sample with little expenditure of resources on questionnaire distribution, data entry, and so on.
This description was also posted to several Usenet i. The description invited readers to e-mail a request for the questionnaire to the first author, who examined the request and verified that it contained a statement that the sender wished to receive the questionnaire and was 18 or older.
Those whose e-mail did not contain this information, or who did not specify their sex, were sent a reminder to return a complete request.
We did not reply to the one person who stated that he was not yet These recruitment materials, as well as the questionnaires themselves, are given in an Appendix to this paper. The questionnaire materials began with a description of the study, and then moved to a lengthy discussion of confidentiality Participants were warned that returning their completed questionnaires through the Internet or the commercial service would not by any means guarantee their confidentiality.
Most Internet devotees know that their e-mail messages are about as private as postcards sent through the mail; most arrive unread but outsiders can probably read one if they are highly motivated to do so. Nevertheless, most respondents chose this route. A somewhat more secure alternative, used by about a dozen respondents, was to print their completed questionnaire and then fax it back to the senior author.
Participants had been warned that this, too, was risky if complete anonymity was desired. The rest of the questionnaires fewer than 10 were returned anonymously by U. To assure confidentiality and to prevent identification based upon identifiers linked to the participants, we gathered only a minimum of demographic information from each person.
When the earliest few respondents turned out to be predominantly male, we waited to e-mail questionnaires to women until a sufficient number of requests had accumulated so that the arrival of a completed female questionnaire would not betray its origins. Once the data were safe in the databanks, all identifiers e-mail addresses, etc.
Faxed responses were reconverted to computer-readable ASCII characters by using optical character recognition software from Expervision, Inc.
Electronic responses were converted to database format automatically by a parsing program Klein sexual orientation grid pdf to word by the first author. Printed questionnaires were entered into the databanks by hand. We re-posted the invitation on the same commercial and Internet interest groups adding a new newsgroup, soc. This improved the sex ratio substantially. However, everyone in these samples was recruited at the same times, using the same procedures, as described above.
Demographic and other information about the participants will be presented in the Results. The HIV sample had already been recruited from the membership of a previous longitudinal study of HIV in San Diego, by advertisements placed in local newspapers, by word of mouth, and by referral from the HIV care facilities associated with large local hospitals. Male, aged 18—49 at entry, and having more than 9 years of education.
History of alcohol or other psychoactive substance use disorders in the past 12 months, intravenous drug use everclinical diagnosis of AIDS Dementia Klein sexual orientation grid pdf to word, chronic medical illness e.
Participants were screened in a face-to-face interview and signed a consent form. Most—but far from all—participants reported a sexual orientation of homosexual or bisexual. Participants used in the present study were the who had completed the Klein Sexual Orientation Grid see below.
As shown in Figure 1this questionnaire consists of 21 items grouped into 7 variables labeled A through G. For each variable participants rate themselves three times for Present, Past, and Ideal on a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 indicates the most other-sex or heterosexual response and 7 represents the most same-sex or homosexual response.
Note that on our questionnaire and in our tabulations, these three time-related aspects are listed in the order of Present, Past, and Ideal.
This is different order than the one used on the original Klein Grid, namely Past, Present, and Ideal. Participants in the Main Study completed a few additional questionnaires whose items will be analyzed in future papers. The full set of questionnaires is available as an appendix.
Demographic information was also gathered: Finally, participants were asked for past-month totals of masturbation frequency, frequency of sexual contact with another person, and number of different sexual partners.
Data were entered into computers, scored, and analyzed using JMP version 3. One of the major goals of this study was to devise an empirical method to assess sexual orientation categories using the Klein Grid in a statistically more sophisticated way than has been done in the past.
Correlations among some Klein Grid items are typically very high, especially in samples of a predominant sexual orientation e. In the present case they were high enough
Klein sexual orientation grid pdf to word we were unable to perform a factor analysis of Klein Grid scores due to the high statistical interdependence of some of these items. Instead, we performed a cluster analysis of the 21 KSOG items, using hierarchical agglomerative clustering by participant.
Clustering was done separately for each of the three samples: Then the two next most similar clusters are combined and distances recomputed. This process continues until all clusters are combined. Finally, a dendrogram cluster tree is generated showing the history of how clusters were combined.
This type of clustering is an exploratory data technique. It does not generate any statistical test, and interpretation of the tree is not always unambiguous. However, certain qualitative characteristics of the dendrogram can be informative and suggest further analyses—some of which might reveal important relationships. If the underlying distribution is bimodal or even discretethen the agglomeration pattern will reveal the existence of those subgroups empirically.
For example, a cluster analysis of the heights of all the human beings in elementary school building will reveal short people students and tall people teachers segregating in two different clusters. Demographic tabulations for the samples are presented in Table 1. One of the 21 KSOG items closely resembles this measure: By this criterion, as shown in Table 2 we succeeded in attracting Main Samples that were only moderately weighted toward heterosexual participants.
The MS women were twice as likely as the MS men to report that they were equally Klein sexual orientation grid pdf to word and heterosexual i. Not surprisingly due to its recruitment methodsit is strongly U-shaped, with peaks at the two ends 1 and 7. A stair-step pattern typically suggests a continuous underlying distribution—as would probably result, for example, if one were to cluster on the heights of people attending a university.
Instead, in satisfactory clustering one typically hopes that the top levels will reveal a pattern that divides the total sample into discrete subgroups, each with a substantial number of members.
For example, clustering
Klein sexual orientation grid pdf to word the heights of people in an elementary school would identify two nearly non-overlapping subgroups: It is especially intriguing if the clustering then turns out to correlate significantly with some outside variables not used in the clustering process, because this would suggest that the clustering is not merely a statistical fiction, convenience, or quirk.
The cluster analysis for the MS female participants was highly satisfactory, showing, at the top end, an easily interpreted division into four subgroups which is actually the bottom-most part of the bottom left corner of Figure 2.
Klein sexual orientation grid pdf to wordthese group differences are statistically significantly different by cluster membership for either women or men.
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Jealousy over a male friend?of words to describe their sexual orientation, including bisexual, “bi,” same and other to the Kinsey scale, ranging from exclusive “opposite” sex attraction to. Klein Sexual Orientation Grid, adapted*. Please rate yourself on the following 7 variables of sexual orientation. For each variable, please choose the number..
It was introduced by Dr. The Klein Sexual Orientation Grid is shown in the table downstairs. For each person, it sets out the seven component variables of sexual orientation, listed as A through G down the left side. The three columns indicate three different points at which sexual orientation is assessed: The person then receives a rating from 1 to 7 for each of the 21 resulting combinations, one rating after each empty box in the chart below.
The meanings of the ratings are indicated moral below the grid itself. Your life up to 12 months ago. The most recent 12 months Ideal: What do you think you would eventually like? Whom are your sexual fantasies about?
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- It was introduced by Dr. Fritz Klein () in his book The Bisexual Option. The Klein Sexual Orientation Grid is shown in the table below. For each person.
- The Klein Sexual Orientation Grid (or KSOG) is a system for describing a introduced by Dr. Fritz Klein () in his book The Bisexual Option. It . PDF | We used a cluster analysis to empirically address whether sexual Klein Sexual Orientation Grid item means by sexual orientation .. newspapers, by word of mouth, and by referral from the HIV care facilities as-.
- Keywords: sexual orientation, bisexuality, cluster analysis, Internet, Klein Sexual . by word of mouth, and by referral from the HIV care facilities associated with.
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Keywords: sexual orientation, bisexuality, cluster analysis, Internet, Klein Sexual . by word of mouth, and by referral from the HIV care facilities associated with. Klein Sexual Orientation Grid, adapted*. Please rate yourself on the following 7 variables of sexual orientation. For each variable, please choose the number. The Klein Sexual Orientation Grid (KSOG) collects data across a . personal contacts within the department and societies, and word of mouth.