DESCRIPTION: Reproduction is defined as the ability of an organism to produce new individuals. There are basically two types of reproduction- asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction. In this mode of reproduction, a single parent is involved.Casca Fdasca: Can You upload a video on how to date a terrorist?
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Reproduction in Algae: 3 Modes
Many small algae reproduce asexually by ordinary cell division or by has alternating diploid and haploid vegetative stages, whereas Spirogyra (class. Majority of the cells are vegetative and only a few are reproductive. . Spirogyra; Asexual reproduction: Spirogyra can reproduce asexually, if the strand simply. Fig Binary fission. Budding is a form of asexual reproduction in which a new organism arises from the outgrowth of the parent. A-isogametes in Cladophora. Organisms belonging to monera, fungi, algae etc., have haploid parent body.
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Algae regenerate by sexual reproduction, involving male and female gametes sex cellsby asexual reproductionor by both ways. Asexual reproduction is the production of progeny without the union of cells or nuclear material. Many small algae reproduce asexually by ordinary cell division or by fragmentation, whereas larger algae reproduce by spores.
Some red algae produce monospores walled, nonflagellate, spherical cells that are carried by water currents and upon germination produce a new organism. Some green algae produce nonmotile spores called aplanosporeswhile others produce zoosporeswhich lack true cell walls and bear one or more flagella. These flagella allow zoospores to swim to a favourable environmentwhereas monospores and aplanospores have to rely on passive transport by water currents.
Sexual reproduction is characterized by the process of meiosisin which progeny cells receive half of their genetic information from each parent cell. Sexual reproduction is usually regulated by environmental events. In many
Cladophora asexual reproduction in fungiwhen temperature, salinity, inorganic nutrients e.
A sexually reproducing organism typically has two phases in its life cycle. In the first stage, each cell has a single Cladophora asexual reproduction in fungi of chromosomes and is called haploidwhereas in the second stage each cell has two sets of chromosomes and is called diploid.
When one haploid gamete fuses with another haploid gamete during fertilization, the resulting combination, with two sets of chromosomes, is called a zygote. Either immediately or at some later time, a diploid cell directly or indirectly undergoes a special reductive cell-division process meiosis. Diploid cells in this stage are called sporophytes because they produce spores. During meiosis the chromosome number of a diploid sporophyte is halved, and the resulting daughter cells are haploid.
At some time, immediately or later, haploid cells act directly as gametes. In algae, as in plants, haploid cells in this stage are called gametophytes because they produce gametes. The life cycles of sexually reproducing algae vary; in some, the dominant stage is the sporophyte, in others it is the Cladophora asexual reproduction in fungi. For example, Sargassum class Phaeophyceae has a diploid sporophyte body, and the haploid phase is represented by gametes.
Ectocarpus class Phaeophyceae has alternating diploid and haploid vegetative stages, whereas Spirogyra class Charophyceae has a haploid vegetative stageand the zygote is the only diploid cell. In freshwater species especially, the fertilized egg, or zygote, often passes into a dormant state called a zygospore. Zygospores generally have a large store of food reserves and a thick, resistant cell wall. Following an appropriate environmental stimulus, such as a change in light, temperature, or nutrients, the zygospores are induced to germinate and start another period of growth.
Most algae can live for days, weeks, or months. Small algae are sometimes found in abundance during a short period of the year and remain dormant during the rest of the year. In some Cladophora asexual reproduction in fungi, the dormant form is a resistant cyst, whereas other species remain in the vegetative state but at very low population numbers. Some large, attached species are true perennials. They may lose the main body at the end of the growing seasonbut the attachment part, the holdfast, produces new growth only at the beginning of the next growing season.
The red algaeas exemplified by Polysiphoniahave some of the most complex life cycles known for living organisms. Following
Cladophora asexual reproduction in fungi, four haploid tetraspores are produced, which germinate to produce either a male or a female gametophyte. When mature, the male gametophyte produces special spermatangial branches that bear structures, called spermatangia, which contain spermatia, the male gametes.
The female gametophyte produces special carpogonial branches that bear carpogonia, the female gametes. Fertilization occurs when a male spermatium, carried by water currents, collides with the extended portion of a female carpogonium and the two gametes fuse. The fertilized carpogonium the zygote and the female gametophyte tissue around it develop into a basketlike or pustulelike structure called a carposporophyte. The carposporophyte eventually produces and releases diploid carpospores that develop into tetrasporophytes.
Certain cells of the tetrasporophyte undergo meiosis to produce tetraspores, and the cycle is repeated. In the life cycle of Polysiphoniaand many other red algae, there are separate male and female gametophytes, carposporophytes that develop on the female gametophytes, and separate tetrasporophytes.
The life cycles of diatomswhich are diploid, are also unique. Diatom walls, or frustules, are composed of two overlapping parts the valves.
During cell division, two new valves form in the middle of the cell and partition the protoplasm into two parts. Consequently, the new valves are generally somewhat smaller than the originals, so after many successive generations, most of the cells in the growing population are smaller than their parents.
When such diatoms reach a critically small size, sexual reproduction may be stimulated. The small diploid cells undergo meiosis, and among pennate thin, elliptical diatoms the resulting haploid gametes fuse into a zygote, which grows quite large and forms a special kind of cell called an auxospore. The auxospore divides, Cladophora asexual reproduction in fungi two large, vegetative cells, and in this manner the larger size is renewed.
In centric diatoms there is marked differentiation between nonmotile female gametes, which act as egg cells, and motile typically uniflagellate male gametes. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval.
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Reproduction and life histories Algae regenerate by Cladophora asexual reproduction in fungi reproduction, involving male and female gametes sex cellsby asexual reproductionor by both ways. Previous page Nutrient storage. Page 9 of Next page Evolution and paleontology of algae.
Learn More in these related Britannica articles: The various major algal groups, such as the green algae, brown algae, and red algae, are now placed in the kingdom Protista because they lack one or more of the features that are characteristic of plants. Evolution of land plants from the Ordovician Period through the Middle Devonian.
The earliest fossil evidence for land plants consists of isolated spores, tracheid-like tubes, and sheets of cells found in Ordovician rocks. Although lichens appear to be single plantlike organisms, under a microscope the associations are seen to consist of millions of cells of algae called the phycobiont woven into a matrix formed….
Seaweed is harvested in the water or collected on the seashore. Algae play an important ecological role in many countries, not only as human food but also as fodder for cattle, as fertilizer, and as a raw material for certain industries. There is only one subaquatic grass of any significance, namely eelgrass. Algae that grow in a fixed location, generally called seaweeds, may be categorized according to colour, into green, brown, red, or blue-green.
Brown algae, sometimes called kelp, may grow to exceptional sizes; some…. More About Algae 31 references found in Britannica articles Assorted References biological development In biological development: Development of single-celled organisms characteristics In protist: Features unique to protists In protist: Algae classification In plant: Definition of the kingdom commercial uses In commercial fishing In commercial fishing: Seaweeds and plankton dispersal of marine organisms In marine ecosystem: Distribution and dispersal evolution of plants In plant: Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.
Help us improve this article! Contact our editors with your feedback. Introduction Physical and ecological features of algae Size range and diversity of structure Distribution and abundance Ecological and commercial importance Toxicity Form and function of algae The algal cell Flagella Mitosis Cellular respiration Photosynthesis and light-absorbing pigments The effects of water on light absorption Nutrient storage Alternative methods of nutrient absorption Reproduction and life histories Evolution and paleontology of algae Classification of algae Diagnostic features Annotated classification.
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- Reproduction in Organisms | eMedicalPrep
- Article shared by: In this article we will discuss about the vegetative body and reproduction of cladophora. Vegetative Body of Cladophora: The vegetative body .
- Cladophora life cycle
- Cladophora is a cosmopolitan alga and can be found in huge masses of a variety of undulipodia, to the ancestors of the fungal lineage; and Choanomastigota .. to sexual reproduction, since their zygote stages act as resistant resting form. Many small algae reproduce asexually by ordinary cell division or by has alternating diploid and haploid vegetative stages, whereas Spirogyra (class.
- Majority of the cells are vegetative and only a few are reproductive. . Spirogyra; Asexual reproduction: Spirogyra can reproduce asexually, if the strand simply.
- Reproduction in Algae: 3 Modes
- Classification of Cladophorales | Algae
Algae regenerate near procreative copying, involving spear and female gametes bonking cells Principally, aside asexual duplication Theorem, or near both ways.
Asexual copy is the effort of heirs outdoors the combining of cells or atomic data. Abounding tight-fisted algae repeat asexually by means of workaday apartment section or at hand fragmentation, whereas larger algae replicate sooner than spores. Some red algae put together monospores walled, nonflagellate, globular cells that are carried near tone down currents and upon germination generate a renewed structure.
Some wet behind the ears algae generate nonmotile spores hollered aplanospores Wont, while others put on zoospores School-marmish, which scarcity unerring stall walls and affect at one or more flagella. These flagella grant zoospores to swim to a good circumstances whereas monospores and aplanospores must to commit on subdued moving rapture past hose currents. Animal replica is characterized around the of meiosis Exceptional, in which scions cells learn half of their genetic skinny from each father apartment.
Animal twin is most often regulated close environmental events. In sundry species Fighting, when temperature, salinity, inorganic nutrients e.
Reproduction in Organisms
The reproduction in Cladophora may be a vegetative b asexual c sexual Vegetative reproduction: The vegetative production takes place by 1 fragmentation 2 stolons 3 tubers and 4 akinetes Fragmentation: The filaments break in small filaments, each fragment may give rise to a new plant. In Cladophora usually the cells of dying rhizoids are filled up with starch called tubers. These structures are filled up with food reserves.
In favourable conditions these tubers germinate and produce new plant. The akinetes are vegetative bodies. The protoplast of the cell becomes round and thick-walled and known as akinete.
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The following points highlight the three modes of reproduction in algae. In that type, any vegetative part of the thallus develops into new individual. It does not connect with any spore organization and there is no alternation of generations. It is the most hackneyed method of copy in algae.
It is the simplest method of imitation. The unicellular forms of algae commonly reproduce by that simple process, time again called binary fission as found in Chlamydomonas, Synechococcus Fig. In this method, the multicellular filamentous thallus breaks into many-celled fragments, each of which gives rise to a new individual. The fragmentation may be accidental or around the formation of separation discs or by some other mechanical force or injury.
This method of vegetative duplication is found in blue-green algae. Adventitious branches are formed in different altogether thalloid algae, which, when detached from the plant band, develop into unique individuals e. Protonema-like adventitious branches are formed from the internodes of Chara, stolons of Cladophora glomareta etc.
After detachment from the plant body, bulbils grow into modish plants.
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How often should you be going out with a girl?Majority of the cells are vegetative and only a few are reproductive. . Spirogyra; Asexual reproduction: Spirogyra can reproduce asexually, if the strand simply. The vegetative reproduction in algae is of the following types: It is found in Spirogyra, Ulothrix, Oedo- gonium, Zygnema, Cylindospermum (Fig. B) etc..
Majority of the cells are vegetative and only a few are reproductive. . Spirogyra; Asexual reproduction: Spirogyra can reproduce asexually, if the strand simply. Reproduction in Cladophora. The reproduction in Cladophora may be (a) vegetative (b) asexual (c) sexual. Vegetative reproduction: The vegetative production. Fig Binary fission. Budding is a form of asexual reproduction in which a new organism arises from the outgrowth of the parent. A-isogametes in Cladophora. Organisms belonging to monera, fungi, algae etc., have haploid parent body.