DESCRIPTION: Plant reproduction is the process by which plants generate new individuals, or offspring. Reproduction is either sexual or asexual. Sexual reproduction is the formation of offspring by the fusion of gametes.Paul1x1: I hate when people say potatoe, It's a fuckin spud
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Many plants are able to propagate themselves using asexual reproduction. This method does not require the investment required to produce a flower, attract. how flowering plants reproduce View All Media Plant reproductive system, any of the systems, sexual or asexual, by which plants reproduce. In plants, as in. In National 4 Biology learn how bacteria and plants reproduce asexually and how sexual reproduction in Bacteria and plants can reproduce asexually to produce genetically identical individuals. . The first shows the flower bud and a small.
Reproduction means producing offspring for the survival of the species. reproduction is the production of new individuals or offspring in plantswhich can be accomplished by sexual or asexual reproduction.
Sexual reproduction produces offspring by the fusion of gametesresulting in offspring genetically different from the parent or parents. Asexual reproduction produces new individuals without the fusion of gametes, genetically identical to the parent plants and each other, except when mutations occur.
In seed plantsthe offspring can be packaged in a protective seedwhich is used as an agent of dispersal. Reproduction in which male and female gametes do not fuse, as they do in sexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction may occur through buddingfragmentationfissionspore formation and vegetative propagation. Plants have two main types of asexual reproduction in which new plants are produced that are genetically identical clones of the parent individual. Vegetative reproduction invoves a vegetative piece of the original plant budding, tilleringetc.
Apomixis occurs in many plant species and also in some non-plant organisms. For apomixis and similar processes in non-plant organisms, see parthenogenesis. Natural vegetative reproduction is mostly a process found in herbaceous and woody perennial plants, and typically involves structural modifications of the stem or roots and in a few species leaves.
Most plant species that employ vegetative reproduction do so as a means to perennialize the plants, allowing them to survive from one season to the next and often facilitating their expansion
Flowering plants reproduction asexual plants size. A plant that persists in a location through vegetative reproduction of individuals constitutes a clonal colony ; a single rametor apparent individual, of a clonal colony is genetically identical to all others in the same colony.
The distance that a plant can move during vegetative reproduction is limited, though some plants can produce ramets from branching rhizomes or stolons that cover a wide area, often in only a few Flowering plants reproduction asexual plants seasons. In a sense, this process is not one of reproduction but one of survival and expansion of biomass of the individual. When an individual organism increases in size via cell multiplication and remains intact, the process is called vegetative growth.
However, in vegetative reproduction, the new plants that result are new individuals in almost every respect except genetic. A major disadvantage to vegetative reproduction, is the transmission of pathogens from parent to offspring; it is uncommon for pathogens to be transmitted from the plant to its seeds in sexual reproduction or in apomixisthough there are occasions when it occurs.
Seeds generated by apomixis are a means of asexual reproduction, involving the formation and dispersal of seeds that do not originate from the fertilization of the embryos.
Hawkweed Hieraciumdandelion Taraxacumsome Citrus Citrus and Kentucky blue grass Poa pratensis all use this form of asexual reproduction. Pseudogamy occurs in some plants that have apomictic seeds, where pollination is often needed to initiate embryo growth, though the pollen contributes no genetic material to the developing offspring. Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction where the offspring comes from one parent only, thus, inheriting the characteristics of the parent.
A rhizome is a modified underground stem serving as an organ of vegetative reproduction; the growing tips of the rhizome can separate as new plants, e.
Prostrate aerial stems, called runners or stolonsare important vegetative reproduction organs in some species, such as the strawberrynumerous grassesand some ferns.
Adventitious buds form on roots near the ground surface, on damaged stems as on the stumps of cut treesor on
Flowering plants reproduction asexual plants roots. These develop into above-ground stems and leaves. A form of budding called suckering is the reproduction or regeneration of a plant by shoots that from an existing root system.
Species that characteristically produce suckers include Elm UlmusDandelion Taraxacumand many members Flowering plants reproduction asexual plants the Rose family such as Rosa and Rubus. Plants like onion Allium cepahyacinth Hyacinthnarcissus Narcissus and tulips Tulipa reproduce by dividing their underground bulbs into more bulbs. Other plants like potatoes Solanum tuberosum and dahlia Dahlia reproduce by a similar method involving underground tubers.
Flowering plants reproduction asexual plants crocuses Crocus reproduce in a similar way with corms. The most common form of plant reproduction utilized by people is seeds, but a number of asexual methods are utilized which are usually enhancements of natural processes, including: Asexual methods are most often used to propagate cultivars with individual desirable characteristics that do not come true from seed.
In horticulture, a "cutting" is a branch that has been cut off from a mother plant below an internode and then rooted, often with the help of a rooting liquid or powder containing hormones.
When a full root has formed and leaves begin to sprout anew, the clone is a self-sufficient plant,  genetically identical to the mother plant. Examples include cuttings from the stems of blackberries Rubus occidentalisAfrican violets Saintpauliaverbenas Verbena to produce new plants. A related use of cuttings is graftingwhere a stem or bud is joined onto a different stem. Nurseries offer for sale trees with grafted stems that can produce four or more varieties of related fruits, including apples.
The most common usage of grafting is the propagation of cultivars onto already rooted plants, sometimes the rootstock is used to dwarf the plants or protect them from root damaging pathogens. Since vegetatively propagated plants are clones, they are important tools in plant research.
When a clone is grown in various conditions, differences in growth can be ascribed to environmental effects instead of genetic differences. Sexual reproduction involves two fundamental processes: In between these two processes, different types of plants and algae vary, but many of them, including all land plants Flowering plants reproduction asexual plants, undergo alternation of generationswith two different multicellular structures phasesa gametophyte and a sporophyte.
The gametophyte is the multicellular structure plant that is haploidcontaining a single set of chromosomes in each cell. The gametophyte produces male or female gametes or bothby a process of cell division called mitosis. The fusion of male and gametes fertilization produces a diploid zygotewhich develops by mitotic cell divisions into a multicellular sporophyte.
The mature sporophyte produces spores by meiosissometimes referred to as " reduction division " because the chromosome pairs are separated once again to form single sets.
In mosses and liverworts the gametophyte is relatively large, and the sporophyte is a much smaller structure that is never separated from the gametophyte. In fernsgymnospermsand flowering plants angiospermsthe gametophytes are relatively small and the sporophyte is much larger.
In gymnosperms and flowering plants the mega gametophyte is contained within the ovule that may develop into a seed and the micro gametophyte is contained within a pollen grain. Unlike animals, plants are immobile, and cannot out sexual partners for reproduction. In the evolution of early plants, abiotic means, including Flowering plants reproduction asexual plants and wind, transported sperm for reproduction.
The first plants were aquaticas described in the page " Evolutionary history of plants ", and released sperm freely into the water to be carried with the currents. Primitive land plants like liverworts and mosses had
Flowering plants reproduction asexual plants sperm that swam in a thin film of water or were splashed in water droplets from the male reproduction organs onto the female organs.
As taller and more complex plants evolved, modifications in the alternation of generations evolved; in the Paleozoic era progymnosperms reproduced by using spores dispersed on the wind. The seed plants including seed fernsconifers and cordaiteswhich were all gymnospermsevolved million years ago; they had pollen grains that contained the male gametes for protection of the sperm during the process of transfer from the male to female parts. It is believed that insects fed on
Flowering plants reproduction asexual plants pollen, and plants thus evolved to use insects to actively carry pollen from one plant to the next.
Seed producing plants, which include the angiosperms and the gymnosperms, have heteromorphic alternation of generations with large sporophytes containing much reduced gametophytes. Angiosperms have distinctive reproductive organs called flowers, with carpelsand the female gametophyte is greatly reduced to a female embryo sac, with as few as eight cells. The male gametophyte consists of the pollen grains. The sperm of seed plants are non-motile, except for two older groups of plants, the Cycadophyta and the Ginkgophytawhich have flagellated sperm.
Flowering plants are the dominant plant form on land and they reproduce by sexual and asexual means. Often their most distinguishing feature is their reproductive organs, commonly called flowers. reproduction in flowering plants involves the production of male and female gametesthe transfer of the male gametes to the female ovules in a process called pollination. After pollination occurs, fertilization happens and the ovules grow into seeds within a fruit.
After the seeds are ready for dispersalthe fruit ripens and by various means the seeds are freed from the fruit and after varying amounts of time and under specific conditions the seeds germinate and Flowering plants reproduction asexual plants into the next generation. The anther produces male gametophytes which are pollen grainswhich attach to the stigma on top Flowering plants reproduction asexual plants a carpelin which the female gametophytes inside ovules are located.
After the pollen tube grows through the carpel's style, the sperm from the pollen grain migrate into the ovule to fertilize the egg cell and central cell within the female gametophyte in a process termed double fertilization. The resulting zygote Flowering plants reproduction asexual plants into an embryo, while the triploid endosperm one sperm cell plus a binucleate female cell and female tissues of the ovule give rise to the surrounding tissues in the developing seed.
The ovary, which produced the female gametophyte sthen grows into a fruitwhich surrounds the seed s. Plants may either self-pollinate or cross-pollinate. In plants that use insects or other animals to move pollen from one flower to the next, plants have developed greatly modified flower parts to attract pollinators and to facilitate the movement of pollen from one flower to the insect and from the insect back to the next flower.
Flowers of wind pollinated plants tend to lack petals and or sepals; typically large amounts of pollen are produced and pollination often occurs early in the growing season before leaves can interfere with the dispersal of the pollen. Many trees and all grasses and sedges are wind pollinated, as such they have no need for large fancy flowers.
Plants have a number of different means to attract pollinators including colour, scent, heat, nectar glands, edible Flowering plants reproduction asexual plants and flower shape. Along with modifications involving the above structures two other conditions play a very important role in the sexual reproduction of flowering plants, the first is timing of flowering and the other is the size or number of flowers produced.
Often plant species have a few large, very showy flowers while others produce many small flowers, often flowers are collected together into large inflorescences to maximize their visual effect, becoming more noticeable to passing pollinators.
Flowers are attraction strategies and sexual expressions are functional strategies used to produce the next generation of plants, with pollinators and plants having co-evolved, often to some extraordinary degrees, very often rendering mutual benefit. The largest family of flowering plants is the orchids Orchidaceaeestimated by some specialists to include up to 35, species,  which often have highly specialized flowers that attract particular insects for pollination.
The stamens are modified to produce pollen in clusters called polliniawhich become attached to insects that crawl into the flower. The flower shapes may force insects to pass by the pollen, which is "glued" to the insect.
Some orchids are even more highly specialized, with flower shapes that mimic the shape of insects to attract them to 'mate' with the flowers, a few even have scents that mimic insect pheromones. Another large group of flowering plants is the Asteraceae or sunflower family with close to 22, species,  which also have highly modified inflorescences that are flowers collected together in heads composed of a composite of individual flowers called florets.
Heads with florets of one sex, when the flowers are pistillate or functionally staminate, or made up of all bisexual florets, are called homogamous and can include discoid and liguliflorous type heads. Some radiate heads may be homogamous too. Plants with heads that have florets of two or more sexual forms are called heterogamous and include radiate and disciform head forms, though some radiate heads may be heterogamous too.
Ferns typically produce large diploid sporophytes with rhizomesroots and leaves; and on fertile leaves called sporangiumspores are produced. The spores are released and germinate to produce short, thin gametophytes that are typically heart shaped, small and green in color. The gametophytes or thallusproduce both motile sperm in the antheridia and egg cells in separate archegonia.
After rains or when dew deposits a film of water, the motile sperm are splashed away from the antheridia, which are normally produced on the top side of the thallus, and swim in the film of water to the antheridia where they fertilize the egg. To promote out crossing or cross fertilization the sperm are released before the eggs are receptive of the sperm, making it more likely that the sperm will fertilize the eggs of different thallus.
A zygote is formed after fertilization, which grows into a new sporophytic plant. The condition of having separate sporophyte and gametophyte plants is call alternation of generations. Other plants with similar reproductive means include the PsilotumLycopodiumSelaginella and Equisetum.
The bryophyteswhich include liverwortshornworts and mossesreproduce both sexually and vegetatively. The gametophyte is the most commonly known phase of the plant. All are small plants found growing in moist locations and like ferns, have motile sperm with flagella and need water to facilitate sexual reproduction.
These plants start as a haploid spore that grows into the dominate form, which is a multicellular haploid body with leaf-like structures that photosynthesize.
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- The flower is the reproductive organ of many plants.
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- Plant Reproduction
- Asexual reproduction may occur through budding, fragmentation, Plants have two main types of asexual reproduction in which new instead of flowers, where new cloned individuals are produced. Many plants are able to propagate themselves using asexual reproduction. This method does not require the investment required to produce a flower, attract.
- how flowering plants reproduce View All Media Plant reproductive system, any of the systems, sexual or asexual, by which plants reproduce. In plants, as in.
Mill reproductive system , any of the systems, sexual or asexual, by which plants reproduce. In plants , as in animals , the end result of reproduction is the continuation of a given species , and the ability to reproduce is, therefore, rather conservative , or given to only moderate exchange, during evolution.
Changes have occurred, however, and the pattern is demonstrable through a survey of plant groups. Reproduction in plants is either asexual or sex. Asexual reproduction in plants implicates a variety of widely disparate methods for producing new plants identical in every respect to the parent. Sexual reproduction, on the other hand, depends on a complex series of elementary cellular events, involving chromosomes and their genes , that startle place within an elaborate procreant apparatus evolved precisely for the development of new plants in some respects different from the two parents that played a role in their production.
Reproduction is required for the generation of new individuals. In land plants, reproduction can be asexual, where the offspring are genetically identical to the parent, or sexual, creating genetic variation. The life cycle of plants involves two alternating generations; a sporophyte that makes spores and a gametophyte that produces male and female gametes. During land plant evolution, this life cycle has altered from the gametophyte generation being the larger dominant generation to the sporophyte being the dominant plant we are familiar with.
The structures that make spores and gametes, and the way reproductive cells are exchanged and dispersed, have also altered greatly as plants became better adapted to living in drier environments. Reproduction in the flowering plants has been extensively studied due to their economic importance, and we are beginning to uncover intriguing details of the molecular events that control critical aspects of the process in model and crop plants.
Asexual reproduction produces genetically identical offspring and is beneficial under good conditions. In plants, spores are produced by meiosis and can be either released into the environment bryophytes and nonseed plants or develop within maternal tissues seed plants. Distinct male and female gametes are produced in plants by mitotic divisions of haploid cells. Pollen is an evolutionary advance as it enables the dispersal and the delivery of the male gametes to the female gametes in the absence of free water.
Seeds aid in the dispersal of offspring by providing a protective coat and a nutrition source to support seedlings during germination. PornerBros
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Print means producing offspring in the interest the survival of the species. Spy reproduction is the end result of remodelled individuals or offspring in plants Dirty, which can be proficient by fleshly or asexual reproduction. Voluptuous reproduction produces offspring before the fusion of gametes , resulting in often used as plural child genetically odd from the parent or parents. Asexual reproduction produces new individuals without the fusion of gametes, genetically identical to the pater plants and each other, except when mutations strike.
In root plants Choice, the often used as plural child can be packaged in a jealous seed Official, which is used as an substitute of dispersal.
Reproduction in which manly and female gametes do not consolidate, as they do in sexual double. Asexual replica may manifest itself through budding , fragmentation , fission , spore formation and vegetative propagation. Plants obtain two predominating types of asexual breeding in which new plants are produced that are genetically indistinguishable clones of the begetter individual. Vegetative reproduction invoves a vegetative piece of the starting plant budding, tillering Rigid, etc. Apomixis occurs in many bush species and also in some non-plant organisms.
Ladies, do these turn you off a guy?In land plants, reproduction can be asexual, where the offspring are genetically Reproduction in the flowering plants has been extensively studied due to their. In National 4 Biology learn how bacteria and plants reproduce asexually and how sexual reproduction in Bacteria and plants can reproduce asexually to produce genetically identical individuals. . The first shows the flower bud and a small..
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Asexual reproduction is the formation of offspring without the fusion of gametes. The reproductive cycle of a flowering plant is the regular, usually seasonal. In National 4 Biology learn how bacteria and plants reproduce asexually and how sexual reproduction in Bacteria and plants can reproduce asexually to produce genetically identical individuals. . The first shows the flower bud and a small. Flowers are important for sexual reproduction by plants. They produce male sex cells and female sex cells. These must meet for reproduction to begin, a process .